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A



AGENT 
Representative of manufactured products and responsible for communication, sales and service of customers within a specified region. 

AISC 
American Institute of Steel Construction 

ALLOWABLE STRESS 
Maximum permissible stress as defined by design criteria. 

ALUMINUM 
A silver-white non-ferrous metallic element whose features and physical properties include: a good resistance to temperature variations, high reflectivity, resistance to oxidation, ductility, light weight, and recyclable.
 
ANCHORAGE
Typically refers to anchor bolts, nuts and templates.

ANCHOR BASE 
See "Fixed Base" 

ANCHOR BOLT 
Threaded steel rod embedded into concrete and used to connect the pole to the foundation. 

ANODIZING 
The process of coating a metallic surface electrolytically. This process normally involves the combination of electrical current and chemical bath in which the material's surface or "skin" is altered to form a protective shield for the remaining material 

ANSI 
American National Standards Institute 

APPROVAL DRAWING 
Formal drawing submitted to customer for their review to determine acceptability of product. 

APPURTENANCE
Items attached to the structure such as antennas, antenna mounts, transmission lines, conduits, lighting equipment, climbing devices, platforms, signs, anti-climbing devices, etc.
ARGON 
Inert gas element utilized as a shielding component of "gas metal arc welding" (GMAW) or "metal inert gas welding" (MIG). Generally utilized when welding aluminum or like materials. 

ARM 
A single extension of any cross section used to mount a single fixture. 

ARM RISE 
The vertical distance from the center line of the simplex connection to the center line of the arm end. 

ASTM 
American Society for Testing and Materials 

AWS 
American Welding Society 

AXIAL FORCE 
Force along the longitudinal axis of a member. When designing a foundation this figure relates to the weight of a structure plus any added devices or equipment.
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B


BACK-UP-BAR 
Steel bar used to secure the handhole cover. 

BACK-UP-RING 
Steel ring used for full-penetration welded connections. 

BALLAST BOX 
Enclosure welded to a structure to accommodate the mounting of an electrical component. 

BASE PLATE 
Steel plate welded to the bottom of the pole shaft used to connect the structure to the foundation. 

BASE REACTIONS (POLE) 
Shear force, axial force, and bending moment occurring at the pole base, used for foundation design. 

BEND RADIUS 
The radial dimension corresponding to the curvature of a bent member, usually measured from the inside surface. 
BENDING MOMENT 
The product of a wind force or weight force multiplied by its distance from a section. 

BOLT 
Metal rod or pin used for fastening objects together that usually has a head at one end and a screw thread at the other. 

BOLT CIRCLE 
Dimension measured from one anchor bolt to another which intersects the center line of the pattern. This dimension will remain equal for all bolts, regardless of quantity of bolts. 

BOLT LOAD 
Force along the axis of a bolt. 

BOLT PROJECTION 
Length of anchor bolt extending above the foundation surface. 

BUMP FORMED 
Method of manufacturing a flat steel plate into structural shape. The plate is bent by a brake press usually at equal spacings, forming the desired shape. 

BUTT WELD 
Circumferential weld joint used to connect two shaft sections or a shaft to a plate with or without a back-up ring.
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C


C-HOOK 
Steel rod formed into shape of a "C" and used for wire support or handling purposes. 

C.S.R. 
(Combined Stress Ratio) Summation of ratios of applied stresses over allowable stresses. Included stresses are bending, shear and axial. 

CAD 
Computer-Aided Design 

CALCULATIONS
Formal structural analysis to be presented to the customer, proving adequacy of the structure to the design criteria requirements. 

CANTILEVER 
Structure fixed at one end and free at the other. A pole is a vertical cantilever and a mast arm is a horizontal cantilever. 

CERTIFICATION 
A document containing a confirmation that the product and/or design meets or exceeds some specifically stated conditions. 

COATING 
Process of covering a product with one of or a combination of the following: galvanizing, painting and/or metallizing. 

COIL MATERIAL 
Any steel which is rolled into coil form after processing from the mill. 

COR-TEN 
Trade name by United States Steel Company for high strength, low alloy, self-weathering steel. This material has enhanced atmospheric corrosion resistance when compared with ordinary carbon steels. The enhanced corrosion resistance may permit the use of t 

COUPLING 
Internally threaded steel fitting used for wiring access and attachment of controller cabinets, junction boxes or other related devices. 

CRITERIA 
A written specification used to control the design of a structure. 

CROSSARM 
A length of steel tubing or angle that attaches to a pole shaft with provisions for mounting a single row of lighting fixtures.
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D


DAMPER 
Mechanical device used to eliminate or reduce harmonic vibrations. (See also vibration damper and harmonic vibrations). 

DEAD LOAD 
Total weight of structure and all added appurtenances. 

DEFLECTION 
Movement of the pole and/or arm, expressed as a displacement or rotation, resulting from dead loads or other applied loads. 

DRAG COEFFICIENT 
A numerical factor used in wind force calculations. This factor is applied to the projected area of a structural member, lighting fixture, traffic signal, or other component to account for its shape. 

DRILL PATTERN 
Layout of hole size and spacing for a given fixture. 
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E



EFFECTIVE PROJECTED AREA (EPA) 
Area of a given fixture and/or structure resisting wind force (projected area x appropriate drag coefficient). 

ELEVATION 
The distance which something is above or below sea level, ground level or other referenced surface. (i.e., highway, foundation, etc.) 

EMBEDDED POLE 
Pole fixed into concrete or compacted soil by means of an extended portion. 
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F

FASTENER 
A part used to attach or secure two components together. (i.e., bolt, nut, screw, etc.) 

FALL ZONE 
See “Theoretical Fall Radius”.

FINIAL CAP 
Cast or spun decorative pole top cap. 

FINISH 
A protective and usually decorative coating applied to structures and their components. (i.e., galvanizing, prime painting, finish painting, etc.) 

FIXED BASE 
Type of pole-to-foundation attachment not designed to breakaway if impacted by a vehicle. 

FORCE 
Vector quantity that tends to produce stress and deflection in the structure to which it is applied. 

FOUNDATION 
The earth-embedded support element for a pole structure, normally consisting of concrete, steel reinforcing bars and anchor bolts. 
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G


GALVANIZE 
A zinc coating applied by a hot dip process or other approved method. 

GASKET 
A natural or synthetic rubber seal used between piece parts to prevent the intrusion of moisture. 

GAUGE 
A whole number representing an equivalent decimal thickness. (i.e., 11 = 0.1196, 7 = 0.1793, 3 = 0.2391) 

GROMMET 
A natural or synthetic rubber ring placed in drilled wireway holes to prevent chafing or damage to wires. 

GROUNDING 
Provision on pole for connecting a cable which makes an electrical connection with the earth. 

GROUT 
A mortar used for filling space between the bottom of the pole baseplate and the top of the foundation. 

GUSSET 
Steel plate used to strengthen a welded connection. 

GUST FACTOR 
A numerical factor, usually 1.3, applied to a constant wind velocity to account for an instantaneous outburst of wind
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H


HAND HOLE 
Reinforced opening providing internal access to a structure. 

HARMONIC VIBRATION 
A sustained back-and-forth motion of a member moving the same distance in opposite directions. 

HEAT TREAT 
Process of heating and cooling a material in a controlled manner to develop different mechanical properties. 

HEIGHT COEFFICIENT 
A numerical factor applied to the design wind pressure to account for the increased wind pressure experienced due to smoother flow of air at higher elevations above ground. 

HINGED POLE 
Structure design allowing ease of pole top access using a hinge by which the pole top can be lowered to ground level.

HYDRAULIC JACKING DEVICE
A device used to jack pole sections together at a slip joint.  These devices are available for rent or purchase from Valmont.
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I


IMPACT ATTENUATOR 
A device used on a safety climbing cable to reduce the severity of the jolt encountered when a falling person reaches the end of the safety belt lanyard. 
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J


J-HOOK 
Steel rod formed into the shape of a "J" used for wire support or handling purposes. 

JACKING LUGS 
Steel nuts welded to a pole shaft to facilitate the process of slip fitting pole sections together. 
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K



KIP 
Unit of measure equivalent to 1000 pounds. 

KSI 
Kips per Square Inch 
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L


LEVELING NUT
Nut placed under the base plate for leveling purposes. 

LIGHTNING ROD 
Metallic rod attached to a pole structure creating a continuous conducting path to the ground to diminish the destructive effects of lightning. 

LIQUID COAT 
Finish applied to a material in a liquid form. 

LOCK WASHER 
A split washer used to prevent loosening by exerting pressure on a nut. 

LOCKNUT 
A nut tightened down on another, or a nut so constructed that it locks itself when tightened. Both types are used to prevent loosening. 
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M


MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION 
A non-destructive method of detecting cracks and other discontinuities at or near the surface in ferromagnetic materials (ASTM E709). 

MANDREL FORMED 
The manufacturing process used to produce round tapered tubes by forming steel coil around a mandrel. 

MAST ARM 
The horizontal member of a structure typically used to support luminaries, traffic signals or roadway signs. 

MILL/MATERIAL CERTIFICATION 
An official document issued by the steel mill stating the physical and chemical properties of the material supplied. 

MOMENT 
A force multiplied by the distance to the point of rotation. (See "Bending Moment") 

MOMENT OF INERTIA 
Physical property of a structural cross section used in the calculations of stresses and deflections. It is the summation of the products of element areas, multiplied by the square of their distance from a referenced line. 

MOUNTING HEIGHT 
Vertical distance to a particular part of a pole structure. (i.e., luminaire mounting height)
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N


NIPPLE 
Externally threaded steel fitting used for wiring access and attachment of controller cabinets, junction boxes or other related devices. 
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O


O-RING 
A ring made from natural or synthetic rubber, used as an air-tight or water-tight seal.

OBSTRUCTION LIGHT 
A light mounted on a structure to warn aircraft of its presence. 

OCTAGONAL POLE 
A pole having an eight-sided cross section. 

ORIENTATION 
The position of an appurtenance relative to the circumferential cross section of a pole/arm as measured in degrees from a reference point. (See also "Radial Index") 

OVERTURNING MOMENT 
Bending moment at the pole base used for foundation analysis. (See also "Bending Moment") 

OXIDATION 
The chemical reaction of a material when exposed to oxygen.
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P


P.S.I. 
Pounds per Square Inch 

PAINTING SYSTEM 
A series of processes involved in producing a desired finish. 

PIPE 
A hollow steel cylinder manufactured to a specific nominal inside diameter, wall thickness and yield strength. 

PLANS 
The portion of the contract document that depicts the project requirements by the use of drawings or illustrations. 

POLE 
The vertical member of a structure. 

POLE TOP PLATE 
A steel plate mounted to the top of a pole. 

POWDER COAT 
An electrostatically applied dry powder coating, oven-baked for a smooth, durable finish. 

PRODUCTION DRAWING 
An illustration showing all of the details and information necessary to manufacture the product. 

PROJECTED AREA 
The surface area subjected to wind pressures. 

PROJECTION 
Length of anchor bolt protruding beyond the top of a foundation.
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R


RADIAL INDEX 
An illustration showing the orientation of appurtenances. (See also "Orientation") 

REBAR 
Deformed steel reinforcing bar. 

RECORD DRAWING 
Formal drawing provided to customer showing final manufactured product. 
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S


SAFETY HARNESS 
Component of pole climbing device strapped around a person's body and attached to the safety cable. 

SAFETY CABLE 
Component of climbing device fixed at both ends of the pole structure providing attachment for the safety belt. 

SECTION MODULUS 
Physical property of a structural cross section used in the calculation of stresses. The section modulus is the ratio of the moment of inertia to the farthest distance from the neutral axis. 

SETBACK 
Distance from the roadway edge to the location of the pole. 

SHEAR FORCE 
Force within a member that acts perpendicular to the axis of the member. 

SIMPLEX CONNECTION 
A bolted flange connection rigidly attaching an arm to a pole shaft. 

SLEEVE 
An additional layer of steel wrapped around a specific area of a pole shaft serving one of two purposes: 1) enhancing corrosion resistance on embedded type poles at ground level; and 2) adding to, reinforcing, or replacing a pole's structural characteristics. 

SLIP-JOINT (pole/arm splice) 
A type of connection between two tapered shafts. The top section is designed to fit over the top of the lower section a specified distance, creating a tight friction connection. 

SLOPE 
As pertaining to deflection: angular deviation from a chosen line (usually the center line of the pole or arm) expressed in degrees or in inches per foot. 

SNUG-TIGHT 
Tightening requirement specified for all tower/monopole bolted connections.  "A snug tight condition is defined as the tightness that exists when all plies in a joint are in firm contact.  This may be attained by a few impacts of an impact wrench or the full effort of a man using an ordinary spud wrench."  ("Specification for ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts," Manual of Steel Construction - Allowable Stress Design, AISC, 9th Edition, 1989, p 5-273.). 

SPECIFICATIONS 
An organized listing of requirements for materials, products, design or testing. Specifications can be published nationally (i.e., AASHTO, ASTM, etc.); locally (i.e., state, city, county, etc.); or per project. 

STATIC LOAD 
A constant or non-varying load. 

STEP BOLTS 
Removable headed bolts fastened to pole shafts used for climbing. 

STRAIN 
Change in length of an object in one direction per unit of undisturbed length. 

STRESS 
The internal force per unit area within a member, usually expressed in pounds per square inch (PSI). 

STRUCTURAL BASE 
A base welded to the shaft and contributes to the structural integrity of the pole.
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T


TAPER 
Continuous gradual reduction of a shaft's diameter along its length from base to top. Taper is usually expressed in inches of diameter per foot of length. 

TAPPING 
The formation of an internal screw thread in a hole by means of a tap. 

TEMPLATE 
A guide or pattern used for the proper placement of anchor bolts or drilled holes. 

THEORETICAL FALL RADIUS 
Theoretical distance in which a structure will collapse by purposely maximizing the design CSR at a specific elevation on the tower or pole.  Also known as a “Fall Zone”.. 

TORQUE 
The product of a force multiplied by the distance to the point of rotation causing a twisting action or twisting moment on a particular body. (See also "Torsional Moment") 

TORSIONAL MOMENT 
Action of external forces causing twist in a structure. (See also "Torque") 


TURNKEY 
Responsibility of a single contractor or representative to supply and install materials completed and ready for operation for an entire project.
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U


U-BOLT 
Type of bolt that is shaped in the form of a "U" and threaded on both ends. 

ULTRA COATING 
Finish coating system offered by Valmont that provides a maximum corrosion resistance finish and backed by a ten year warranty. 

UPRIGHT 
Slang term referring to the vertical pipe portion of a sports lighting cage. 
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V


VIBRATION DAMPER 
A device that is placed on or inside a pole or arm to reduce or prevent harmonic vibration caused by wind 
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W


WIND LOADING 
Live load pressures of wind acting on a structure. 

WIND SPEED 
Velocity of wind (MPH) noted either as a basic/isotach speed or as a gust/maximum velocity. 
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Y


YIELD 
The stress in a material at which plastic deformation occurs. 

YIELD MOMENT 
The moment in a pole or arm that will cause the member to yield
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